The special monitoring service was created in 50ths of XX century in order to get data about the nuclear weapon development and testing. During the following forty years, it was becoming a powerful observation system, which consisted of tens of objects located on the Soviet Union area. The special monitoring service included tools of underground, surface, nautical and air location, besides, system of space location was being developed.
At the beginning of 90ths, Ukraine inherited three military bases located in Kiyv, Khmelnitsky and Odessa regions. In order to provide them with operation supervision supporting, 12th Centre of special monitoring was organized.
Due the fact that some observation nodes can’t perform their tasks just by themselves, a problem of complex information processing had appeared. By that moment, the information processing task had been performed by operation – coordinate center in Moscow, so the problem should have been developed from the very beginning.
In 1997, the special monitoring departments were redirected under the supervision of the State Space Agency of Ukraine, which had become a strong stop towards their further development. According the Government decision, the State Space Agency of Ukraine had to control and implement the Program of operating and development of the national system of seismic observations and improvement the population safety living in earthquake-prone regions.
On the basics of those military bases were created the Main center of special monitoring, Western, Northern and Southern local centers of special monitoring, which had become the Main center structural departments.
One of the most important steps towards the Main center of special monitoring further development was including the Ukrainian seismic array (PS45 station) to The Comprehensive Nuclear – Test – Ban Treaty.
The State Space Agency of Ukraine was authorized to present the interests of Ukraine in the Treaty organization. In 2000, was ratified the Agreement between the Government of Ukraine and the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, including post certification activities concerning facilities for international monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.
Being a participant in National and international programs allowed to perform a process of the equipment technical upgrade and the personnel training.
By its present condition, the Main center of special monitoring is quite able to implement such tasks as international nuclear - test – ban – treaties compliance, seismic situation observing (within territory of Ukraine as well as the whole Earth territory), geophysical situation monitoring (in the center departments location).
The Main center of special monitoring includes peripheral and autonomous seismic observing nodes, local seismic observing group and the seismic array structure. At most of them, the sensors are installed on the bedrock in special vaults and boreholes from 30 to 100 meter in depth.
The information of the detected geophysical event is concerted into a special data format, after which it is translated to the processing and control node, where is made a conclusion about coordinates and characteristics of the geophysical event source and its consequences.
All the reports about nuclear explosions, powerful earthquakes and emissions of radioactive substances are sent to the Government authorities, interested departments and agencies.
Among the information users are the Administration of the President of Ukraine, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, government information-analytical system, the State Emergency Service of the Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, research and academic institutions.
In the Main center of special monitoring, is being created the Data Center of the National System of seismic observations, which has the task of improving the safety of the population living in earthquake-prone regions of Ukraine, and the protection of industrial and other objects from the effects of natural and man-made earthquakes. Among the functions of the center is the tools leadership, reception and processing of the geophysical data accumulation, timely provision of information on anomalous geophysical phenomena.
The automated system for the geophysical data collecting and processing is being developed, which provides using of unified digital equipment, data transmission, computer technology and modern software and mathematical software.
It is planned to use such a system elements as a surface under – satellite system of geophysical monitoring within State scientific and technical space program.
The Main center of special monitoring performs its geophysical observations with radio – engineering, seismic, infra – sound, magnet and aerosol methods. The observation results as well as their processing results, are interesting for many academic institutions, which are in collaboration with the Main center of special monitoring.
Among the main activity directions are developing of the geophysical information acquisition manuals, applicable software and earthquake precursors.
The Main center of special monitoring is the collaborator of the State research program in Antarctica. On the Ukrainian Vernadsky station is installed Seismic and acoustic complex, which conducted its research all the time. Since 2000, the Center specialists have participated in almost all expeditions, five of which have been directly headed. In the Main center of special monitoring , was created a educational-training base for the expedition participants. Each year, before being sent to the station, held a meeting with the center staff including those with experience in Antarctic research.